Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal through hammering, pressing or rolling. These compressive forces are delivered with a hammer or die. There are many categories that forgings can be put under according to the temperature at which it is performed-cold, warm or hot forgings. Various metals can be forged.
There are a few basic methods or processes to make a forged part: Hot forgings, Cold forgings, Open dies forgings or seamless rolled ring forgings, there are many more however these are the most common.
Nothing beats forgings for strength or reliability; advances in forging technology have expanded the range of size, shapes and properties available in forged products to meet an increasing variety of design and performance requirements. Forgings are used where strength, reliability and resistance to shock and fatigue are vital requirements.
Forgings can be found in the automotive and truck industry, these are commonly found at points of movement or stress, some cars may even have more than 250 forgings, most of these would usually be produced from carbon or alloy steel. Forged engine and powertrain components include connecting rods, transmission shafts and gears, crankshafts, drive shafts and clutch hubs.
Forgings can also be found in the Aerospace industry, high strength to weight ratio and structural reliability improve performance, range and payload capabilities of aircraft. Ferrous and non-ferrous forgings are used in helicopters, planes, commercial jets and military aircraft. Many aircraft are designed with forging in mind and contain more than 450 structural forgings as well as hundreds of engine parts that are also forged. The forged parts may include bulkheads, wing roots, hinges, engine mounts, brackets, beams, landing gear cylinders and struts. In jet turbine engines iron, nickel and cobalt-based superalloys are forged into buckets, blades, couplings, discs, chambers and shafts- all of these will require high yield tensile and creep-rupture strengths, also they would require good ductility at temperatures ranging between 1000 and 2000 degrees Fahrenheit. Forgings of stainless steels, titanium and aluminium find similar applications at lower temperatures. Forged missile components of titanium, columbium and superalloys provide unduplicated mechanical and physical properties under severe service conditions. Aluminium structural beams for boosters, titanium motor cases and nuclear engine reactor shields are used in the space shuttle programme.